Pinanga glaucifolia

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Pinanga (pih-NAHN-gah)
glaucifolia (glah-sih-foh-LEE-ah)
PHILIPPINES: Luzon: Camarines Norte Prov. Labo Municipality, Barangay Tulay na Lupa approach. Mt. Labo. Vicinity of Nasimangan River Valley. Logged-over lowland dipterocarp forest. Coordinates of general area. 480-520 m elevation. Photo by Dr. Julie F. Barcelona
Scientific Classification
Genus: Pinanga (pih-NAHN-gah)
glaucifolia (glah-sih-foh-LEE-ah)
None set.
Native Continent
Habit: Solitary
Leaf type: Pinnate
Survivability index
Common names

Habitat and Distribution

Philippines. Luzon (Camarines Norte Prov.). In lowland dipterocarp forest; about
Gold Coast Hinterland, Queensland, Austalia. Photo by Daryl O'Connor
100-200 m. Endemic. (E.S. Fernando. 1994)/Palmweb.


Solitary, slender to moderate, pleonanthic monoecious undergrowth palm, to 3 m tall. Stem to 6 cm in diam.; internodes 3-7 cm long, the younger portions of the stem often covered with greyish-brown indumentum as the leaf sheath. Crownshaft elongate, cylindrical, slightly swollen, to 45 cm long. Leaves to 8 in crown; sheath to 30 cm long, densely covered with greyish-brown indumentum; leaf without sheath to 1 m long; petiole about 9-23 x 0.6-1 cm, shallowly channelled adaxially, convex abaxially, densely covered with brown scaly indumentum; rachis angular, bifacial adaxially and nearly glabrous, obtusely rounded abaxially and densely covered with brown scaly indumentum as petiole. Leaflets to 24 on each side of the rachis, ± sigmoidal, generally unicostate except occasionally for basal and subapical and apical leaflets, regularly arranged, 2.5-4 cm apart, the apex long-acuminate to subfalcate, glossy green adaxially and drying greyish, prominently glaucous on undersurface when fresh, the mid- costa sharply edged, the leaflets often drying brittle; basal leaflets 1-costate, rarely 2- or 3-costate, about 17-41 x 0.5-2.7 cm; middle leaflets 1-costate, about 44-47 x 1.1-1.3 cm; apical leaflets 5-6-costate, about 14-27 x 2.0-2.5 cm, joined to 4 cm at the base along the rachis, the apex incised to as many lobes as there are costae, the lobes acute to acuminate, to 2 cm long. Inflorescence infrafoliar, pendulous; prophyll ensiform, 2-keeled, about 19 x 5.5 cm; peduncle about 2-3 x 1-1.5 cm, flattened, to 4 mm thick, glabrous, somewhat orange when fresh; main axis 3-6 cm long, tapering distally; rachillae 6-10, each 10-18 cm long, flattened, ± triangular at very base only, to 5 mm wide, 3 mm thick when dry, somewhat orange when fresh as peduncle, the subtending bract a narrow, low collar; triads borne distichously along the rachilla. Staminate flower triangular, trigonous, asymmetrical, 11 x 7 mm; calyx poorly developed, present only as a shortly 3-lobed very low collar to 6 mm across, rarely to 1 mm high; petals 3, unequal, valvate, + ovate-lanceolate, 8-10 x 5-7 mm; stamens about 26-30; anthers basifixed, 3 x 0.5 mm; filaments to 0.3 mm long. Pistillate flower depressed-globose, 4 x 4-5 mm, sepals as long as the petals; sepals 3, free, unequal, imbricate, ± obtusely rounded at tips, 3 x 4 mm; petals ? narrower than the sepals and more cucullate, the apex shortly apiculate; ovary broadly ovoid, 3.5 x 3 mm, tipped with an irregularly-lobed stigma. Fruiting perianth depressed-cupular, 2.5 mm high, 4 mm across, with a flat base and slightly contracted mouth, the petals and sepals free, imbricate, subequal, glabrous, the subtending bract a low, explanate, semi-annular collar to 0.5 mm high. Fruit distichous, 7-10 mm apart, ripening yellow then red, but ultimately satiny purplish-black; juvenile fruits fusiform, ultimately ovoid-globose or sphaeroidal when ripe, about 2 x 1.8 cm, obtusely apiculate; epicarp in unripe fruits drying light brown and finely striate, that in ripe fruits generally smooth and often retaining blackish colour; mesocarp fibrous; seed broadly ovoid-globose, about 1 x 1 cm, ± rounded at both ends; endosperm ruminate; embryo basal. Eophyll bifid, to 6.5 cm long including petiole and sheath; leaf segments to 4-costate, about 5 x 1.2 cm, cucullate, acuminate at tips. (E.S. Fernando. 1994)/Palmweb. Editing by edric.

This species is similar to Pinanga philippinensis in general features but it is distinguishable in its solitary habit, the leaflets distinctly glaucous on the undersurface and the mature ripe fruits ovoid-globose or sphaeroidal. (E.S. Fernando. 1994)/Palmweb.


Location: Gold Coast Hinterland, Queensland, Austalia. "I've got one here. It is about 5 ft tall, with a dozen or so suckers. It is quite leaf hardy, and doesn't mark up in the winter. It holds it's own with the close competition, and the dry weather hasn't killed it, so I'd say it is one of the tougher Pinangas. It made it through our freezing episode two years ago without any marking up or ill effects." (Daryl O'Connor)

Warm, sheltered and moist. The leathery leaves probably indicate wind tolerance. Rarely seen in cultivation.

Comments and Curiosities

Conservation: Pinanga glaucifolia is the second species of Pinanga, after P. bicolana Fernando, recently discovered from the now rapidly diminishing Bicol National Park. Both species are greatly endangered due to habitat destruction in the area caused by uncontrolled illegal logging, timber poaching, charcoal making and slash-and- burn farming. (E.S. Fernando. 1994)/Palmweb.

A beautiful, vigorous Pinanga from rainforests in the Philippines with slender, clustering stems and upright, glossy dark green foliage. (

External Links


Phonetic spelling of Latin names by edric.

Special thanks to Geoff Stein, (Palmbob) for his hundreds of photos

Special thanks to, Dr. John Dransfield, Dr. Bill Baker & team, for their volumes of information and photos

Glossary of Palm Terms; Based on the glossary in Dransfield, J., N.W. Uhl, C.B. Asmussen-Lange, W.J. Baker, M.M. Harley & C.E. Lewis. 2008. Genera Palmarum - Evolution and Classification of the Palms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. All images copyright of the artists and photographers (see images for credits).

E.S. Fernando, New Species of Pinanga (Palmae : Arecoideae) from Luzon Island, Philippines. 1994. 1994. New Species of Pinanga (Palmae : Arecoideae) from Luzon Island, Philippines. Kew Bulletin, Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 775-784.

Many Special Thanks to Ed Vaile for his long hours of tireless editing and numerous contributions.

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