Heterospathe califrons

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califrons (kahl-IH-fronz)
Makiling Botanical Gardens. Los Banos, Philippines.
Scientific Classification
Genus: Heterospathe
califrons (kahl-IH-fronz)
None set.
Native Continent
Habit: Solitary
Leaf type: Bifid
Survivability index
Common names
Yanisi (Manobo).

Habitat and Distribution

Philippines. Found on the island of Mindanao. eastern slopes of the Diwata Mountains,
PHILIPPINES: Luzon: Laguna prov. Mt. Makiling, lawn of Makiling Center for Mountain Ecosystems; coordinates of general area 14 9 40.30 N, 121 14 30.54 E. 2013, Photo by Jiro Adorador.
in forest on ultramafic rocks, with canopy to 20 m, often along small creeks and partially water-logged areas; about 580 m alt. Endemic.


Solitary, moderate, unarmed, pleonanthic, monoecious, undergrowth palm to 2.7 m tall. Stem erect, rough-ringed, to about 1.5 mtall, about 6 cm in diam.; internodes to l- cm long. Leaves undivided, bifid, to 13 per crown, erect, arching at maturity; emerging leaves green; leaf including petiole and sheath to 2 m long; sheaths not forming a well-defined crownshaft, each to 24 cm long, the edges fibrous and marcescent; petiole green, only occasionally light purple, about 85 cm Iong, deeply channelled adaxially, the edges sharply angled, convex abaxially and sparsely puncticulate; sheath and petiole persistent on the stem; mid-rachis triangular, channelled adaxially, convex abaxially, sparsely puncticulate; lamina undivided, inversely sagittate, bifid, to 115 cm long, 35 cm wide, lobe to 35 cm long, pinnately ribbed and distinctly plicate, up to 25 maior costae (ribs) on each side of the rachis, the abaxial surface drying glaucescent; indumentum on midrib red-brown scurfy. Inflorescence in terfoliar, erect, becoming only slightly curved in fruit, to 85 cm long, branching to 2 orders; peduncle about 57 cm, covered with brown scales; prophyll lanceolate, about 20-35 x 2.0-2.5 cm, persistent, attached near the base and completely encircling the peduncle, tubular, 2-keeled laterally, and splitting abaxially and apically; peduncular bract attached below middle of peduncle, to about 37 x 2.4 cm, splitting abaxially, marcescent as the inflorescence matures; I or 2 basal first-order branches of rachis further branching with 2 rachillae, distal branches as rachillae, about lO-12, arranged spirally along axis, each about 0.2 x 5-13 cm, more or less terete or slightly angular, tapering distally, covered with brown scales as peduncle; triads or very rarely paired flowers borne spirally along the rachilla and subtended by low, lip like bracts. Stqminate flower oblong, light yellowish, about 2 x 4 mm; sepals 3, petals 3, longer than the sepals; stamens 6, filaments white; pistillode prominent, conical. Pistillate flower rounded in bud, greenish greenish-yellow, shorter than the staminate flower, about 1.5 x 2 mm; sepals 3, imbricate, ciliolate along the margins, about 1.2 x 1.5 mm; petals 3, imbricate at base, broadly acute at tips, about 1 x 1.5 mm; pistil ovoid-conical, about 0.8 x 1.2 mm, staminodes minute. Inftuctescenc with erect to slightly arching rachillae. Fruifs spirally arranged along the rachilla, glossy green, ripening yellow then red, oblong-ovoid, 16 x 7 mm, stigmatic residue obliquely apical, pericarp thin, fibrous, epicarp peeling off readily and drying granulose with sclerosomes. Seed ovoid, about 15 x 8 mm, with prominent hilum, endosperm ruminate; embryobasal. Germination adiacent-ligular; eophyll bifid. (FrnNaxno, E.S. 1990) Editing by edric.


Cold Hardiness Zone: 10b

Comments and Curiosities

"This is a short stemmed, solitary palm with sturdy, undivided leaves. It is endemic to ultramafic soils on the island of Mindanao but is growing well in the volcanic soils of Mt. Makiling. This species was described relatively recently (Fernando & Sotalbo 2001), but already it is proving to be a valuable ornamental in both sun and shade." (Scott Zona)

External Links


Phonetic spelling of Latin names by edric.

Special thanks to Geoff Stein, (Palmbob) for his hundreds of photos.

Special thanks to Palmweb.org, Dr. John Dransfield, Dr. Bill Baker & team, for their volumes of information and photos.

Glossary of Palm Terms; Based on the glossary in Dransfield, J., N.W. Uhl, C.B. Asmussen-Lange, W.J. Baker, M.M. Harley & C.E. Lewis. 2008. Genera Palmarum - Evolution and Classification of the Palms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. All images copyright of the artists and photographers (see images for credits).

FrnNaxno, E.S. 1990a. A preliminary analysis of the palm flora of the Philippine Islands. Principes 34:28-45.

FrnN.rNoo, E.S. 1990b. The genus Heterospathe (Palmae:A recoideae)i n the Philippines. Kew Bulletin 45:219-234.

Many Special Thanks to Ed Vaile for his long hours of tireless editing and numerous contributions.

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