Orania palindan

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Orania (oh-rahn-EE-ah)
palindan (pah-LIHN-dahn)
OpDSC 0269.jpg
Thailand. Photo by Daryl O'Connor.
Scientific Classification
Genus: Orania (oh-rahn-EE-ah)
Species:
palindan (pah-LIHN-dahn)
Synonyms
Orania moluccana
Native Continent
Asia
Asia.gif
Morphology
Habit: Solitary
Leaf type: Pinnate
Culture
Survivability index
Common names
Ajabu (Sumuri language), banga (Tagalog-Bagobo and Manobo dialects), barongong (Tagalog-Montalban dialect), hiyaub (Sougb Language- Siwi dialect), ifo-ifo (Tidore Language), nibun kelapa hutan (Malay-Sentani dialect), okiri (Tobaro Language), palindan (Tagalog-Luzon dialect), saser (Wandama language).

Habitat and Distribution

Maluku, Philippines. A widespread species known from Luzon in the northern part of
Thailand. Photo by Daryl O'Connor.
the Philippines, Sulawesi, Maluku, Misoöl Island and northern part of mainland New Guinea. In Papua it is only known from Manokwari, through the Wandammen Peninsula, to an area near Sentani Lake in Jayapura excluding the Cyclops Mountain. In Papua New Guinea, the presence of this species is so far recorded from the Western Province, close to the border with Papua. So far this species has never been recorded in Borneo. Its occurrence in Sulawesi is based only on an entry in a diary with a photograph written and taken by Ned Beckwith in the 1940s (see Fairchild 1943). Lowland to rather hilly tropical rainforest with altitude from about 10 up to 800 m above sea level. (A.P. Keim and J. Dransfield. 2012)/Palmweb.

Description

Large palm. Trunk 20 - 30 m high, about 15 - 40 cm in diam. breast high. Leaves 10 - 15 in the crown, spirally arranged, massive, about 2.5 to 3.5 m long, in the old crown about 5.6 - 6 m long; leaf-sheath about 28 × 9.5 cm, adaxial surface glabrous, abaxial surface with red-brown tomentum, margins disintegrating into fibres, fibres short, about 5 cm long; petiole about 1.5 m long, with red-brown tomentum; rachis about 2 - 2.5 cm in diam., with dense red-brown tomentum; leaflets about 100 - 122, elongate-lanceolate, regularly arranged, held in one plane, about 4.5 - 8 cm distant in the middle part of rachis, about 1 - 2 m long, 4.5 - 7.5 cm wide, adaxial surface glabrous, with thin red-brown tomentum on midrib, midrib robust, other ribs less robust, glabrous, abaxial surface with dense white indumentum, red-brown tomentum on margin and midrib, midrib robust, other ribs less robust, glabrous. Inflorescence spreading, robust, branching to 2 orders, about 1.15 - 2 m long; prophyll persistent, about 27 - 68.5 cm long, 7 - 8.7 cm wide near the base, disintegrating into fibres; peduncle 80 - 150 cm long, glabrous or with thin red-brown tomentum; peduncular bract one, woody, about 53 - 160 cm long, 14 cm wide, adaxial surface glabrous, abaxial surface with dense red-brown tomentum, splitting in the middle, disintegrating into fibres, wax present; first order branches reaching about 100 - 105 cm long, bracts subtending rachillae about 5 mm long; rachillae thick, straight or not conspicuously zigzag, about 30 - 66.5 cm long, bearing 60 - 130 flower clusters, triads arranged in the proximal half part, the basal about 3.5 - 6 cm devoid of flowers, triads about 2 - 3.5 cm distant, rachilla glabrous. Staminate flowers with calyx of 3 united sepals, about 1 mm long; corolla with 3 free petals, about 4 - 11 mm long, 2 - 3 mm wide; stamens 6, filaments free, dark-brown, about 0.6 - 0.75 mm long, anthers elongate-lanceolate, pale creamy yellow, always free, about 3 mm long; pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers with calyx of 3 united sepals, 1.5 mm long; corolla with 3 free petals, about 3 - 6 mm long, 2 - 4 mm wide; staminodes 6, about 1 - 1.75 mm long; gynoecium dark-brown, about 3 - 4 mm long, 3 - 3.5 mm wide, stigma of 3 elongate lobes, 1 mm long. Fruit globose or bilobed, about 6.5 - 7.5 cm in diam., sometimes found 4 to 5.5 cm in diam., stigmatic remains sub-basal, olive green when young, yellowish green to bright yellow when mature; epicarp smooth, thin, about 0.5 mm thick; mesocarp fibrous, 3 - 4 mm thick; endocarp hard, red-brown, thin, about 0.5 mm thick; endosperm white or creamy white, about 3.2 - 3.5 cm in diam., with a hollow, 1 cm in diam. Embryo placed below middle line of seed. Eophyll bifid. (A.P. Keim and J. Dransfield. 2012)/Palmweb. Editing by edric.

Culture

Full sun, well drained position. Cold Hardiness Zone: 10a

Comments and Curiosities

Etymology: Genus name; Honors the early 19th century Crown Prince of the Netherlands, F.G.L. Willem van Nassau, Prince of Orange. Species name; Native name in Tagalog Language.

Conservation: Least concern (LC). On a global scale this species is widespread, occurring from Philippines through to New Guinea, a very large extent of occupancy. It is, however, locally threatened in the Philippines. (A.P. Keim and J. Dransfield. 2012)/Palmweb.

Uses: Leaves used for thatching, trunk, for building houses and bridges, bows and harpoons.

"This palm is known among collectors for its poisionous seeds and plant parts. Make sure you use gloves when cleaning the fruit, and wash your hands afterwards! I think the beauty of the plant is worth the risk." (Christian Faulkner)


External Links

References

Phonetic spelling of Latin names by edric.

Special thanks to Geoff Stein, (Palmbob) for his hundreds of photos.

Special thanks to Palmweb.org, Dr. John Dransfield, Dr. Bill Baker & team, for their volumes of information and photos.

Glossary of Palm Terms; Based on the glossary in Dransfield, J., N.W. Uhl, C.B. Asmussen-Lange, W.J. Baker, M.M. Harley & C.E. Lewis. 2008. Genera Palmarum - Evolution and Classification of the Palms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. All images copyright of the artists and photographers (see images for credits).

A.P. Keim and J. Dransfield. 2012. A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae).


Many Special Thanks to Ed Vaile for his long hours of tireless editing and numerous contributions.

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