Livistona jenkinsiana

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ATTENTION: Livistona jenkinsiana & Livistona speciosa are not synonyms, it's the old name Saribus speciosus that's the syn., edric.

Livistona (liv-iss-TOH-nah)
jenkinsiana (jehn-kens'-ee-AHN-ah)
Livistona jenkinsiana Infructescencxe Anders S. Barfod.JPG
Thailand. Photo by Dr. Anders S. Barfod.
Scientific Classification
Genus: Livistona (liv-iss-TOH-nah)
Species:
jenkinsiana (jehn-kens'-ee-AHN-ah)
Synonyms
None set.
Native Continent
Asia
Asia.gif
Morphology
Habit: Solitary
Leaf type: Palmate
Culture
Survivability index
Common names
Toko-Patta (India), Kho (ค้อ) (Northern, Phitsanulok and Uttaradit), Himalayan Fan Palm, Major Jenkins Palm, Major Jenkins´ Palm

Habitat and Distribution

India, Sikkim, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China and Thailand. In northeast India in the Naga Hills, Khasia Hills, Jainita Hills, Nowgong, Darjeerling Hills; in Siang, Lohit and Tirap Valleys in Arunachal Pradesh; and Gubro Purbat in Assam.
Vietnam 2009. "Our new porters head off toward the giant Fishtail palm Caryota maxima (not that they had any interest in it), flanked by Livistona jenkinsiana." Photo by Nick.
In Sikkim in the Teesta Valley; Bangladesh in Chittagong; China, in Yunnan; and in northern and peninsular Thailand.In high rainfall areas in moist evergreen forest mostly on sandy loam with a laterite mixture, at 100-2500 m altitude. Datta and Rawat (2003) observed foraging of mature fruit by Hornbills in northeast India.

Description

Hermaphroditic, Solitary palm. Trunk to 10 m tall, 15-23 cm in diameter; breast high, leaf scars prominent, narrow, roughened, light coloured, internodes narrow, dark coloured, petiole bases persistent in the lower portion. Leaves 20-50 in a ± globose crown; petiole 130-200 cm long, 20-25 mm wide distally, adaxially slightly concave, margins armed throughout with single or double retrorsely recurved reddish to brown spines 15-20 mm long, 10-12 mm wide at the base, base frequently swollen, spines reducing in size to tubercles toward the apex; leaf-base fibres moderately prominent, coarse, disintegrating or persistent; appendage to 25 cm long; lamina costapalmate, regularly segmented, ovate-reniform in outline, 105-130 cm long, 150-200 cm wide, adaxially shiny green, abaxially suglaucescent grey or bluish; lamina 8-16% of the segment length, 3-8 cm wide where the segments diverge, apical lobes rigid; parallel veins 9-10 each side of midrib; transverse veins thinner than parallel veins; hastula cordate. Inflorescences un-branched at the base, 60-100 cm long, not extending beyond the limit of the crown, branched to 3 orders; partial inflorescences 3-6; prophyll 30-45 cm long, woody, keeled; peduncular bract(s) lacking; rachis bracts loosely tubular, reddish-brown, glabrous, expanded distally into lanceolate acuminate lobes, sometimes longitudinally split, scurfy to glabrous; rachillae 10-30 cm long, 3-4 mm wide, rigid, yellow-green, puberulous. Flowers in clusters of 3-5, sessile, greenish cream, with inconspicuous bracteoles; sepals fused basally, fleshy, 1.2-4 mm long, 1.3-1.5 mm wide, lobes broadly ovate, with thin and subhyaline margins; petals basally fused, deltoid, acute, 2.5-4 mm long, 2.5-3 mm wide; stamens with basally fused filaments, thick and short, contracted into elongate apices, connective very short, narrow; carpel turbinate-obconical, yellow, distinctly sculptured, and contracted into a short trisulcate, filiform style, stigma simple. Fruit globose to reniform, 19- 28 mm long, 16-25 mm in diam., somewhat asymmetrical, apically rounded, slightly tapered below to an acute base, leaden blue to dark bluish-purple; epicarp very thin, with scattered lenticellular pores; suture line extends full length of the fruit, marked with lip-like structures; mesocarp succulent, moderately fibrous or lacking fibres; endocarp woody, brittle, cinnamon brown inside, 0.5-1 mm wide; pedicel 3-6 mm long, 2.5-4 mm wide. Seed globose, 17-20 mm in diam., slightly flattened on one side; intruded broadly and deeply by the testa; embryo sublateral. Eophyll 7-ribbed. (Dowe, J.L.)/Palmweb. Editing by edric.

Culture

A plant of tropical regions, it can also be grown in more or less frost-free temperate and subtropical climates. It is found in areas of high rainfall, which can be with or without a distinct dry season. Grows best in a sunny, moist, but well drained positionHardiness: zone, 10a. To -1 °C (30.2 °F)

Seed - sow in deep containers in order to avoid root constriction, planting two seeds in each container. The seed of this species has a longer viability than that of most palms. If necessary, thin the seedlings to the best plant and grow them on until large enough to plant out.

Comments and Curiosities


External Links

References

Phonetic spelling of Latin names by edric.

Special thanks to Geoff Stein, (Palmbob) for his hundreds of photos.

Special thanks to Palmweb.org, Dr. John Dransfield, Dr. Bill Baker & team, for their volumes of information and photos.

Glossary of Palm Terms; Based on the glossary in Dransfield, J., N.W. Uhl, C.B. Asmussen-Lange, W.J. Baker, M.M. Harley & C.E. Lewis. 2008. Genera Palmarum - Evolution and Classification of the Palms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. All images copyright of the artists and photographers (see images for credits).

Dowe, J.L., A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae). A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae).


Many Special Thanks to Ed Vaile for his long hours of tireless editing and numerous contributions.

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