| Jubaea (yoo-BEH-ah) |
Natural Heritage Roblería, National Copper Reserve Slice, Region - Metropolitana, Chile.
Habitat and DistributionJubaea chilensis ia native to central Chile between 32°S and
"Jubes" can be found all over the world, wherever their climate needs can be met. As mentioned in more detail below, they are among the hardiest of all palms. Fine specimens can be found in Northern and Southern California, Southern Australia, England, Ireland, and South Africa, to name a few places.
Jubaea chilensis is a single-trunked, pinnate-leaved palm growing to 20-25 m tall. The trunk is the stoutest of any palm, commonly a metre diameter at the base, sometimes up to 1.3 m diameter, often widest in the upper part of the trunk, with smooth grey bark.
The dark green pinnate leaves are 3-5 m long, with pinnae to 30-50 cm long closely spaced along the rachis. Despite the length of the leaves, they often look disproportionally small compared to the massive trunk, particularly on larger trees. The leaf bases persist as grey-brown stubs for a while on young trees, but fall cleanly on mature trees. Editing by edric.
Size: up to 25 m (80') tall 16 feet in diameter (5 m)
Min. Temperature: 16°F (-9°C)
Water Requirements: Moderate water
Sun Requirements: Full sun to light shade
Germination: slow to germinate, usually taking between 6 to 16 months.
Leaf: Pinnate, stiff feather leaves, which are dull green above and greyish underneath, up to 12 feet long (3.6 m).
Trunk: Gray trunk with leaf scars, Up to 1.5m (5') wide.
Flower: Large number of very small purple flowers. Flowers are in groups of 2 males flowers for 1 female.. Flower stalk coming from among the leaves, 4 feet long.
Fruit: yellow. Up to 2 inches in diameter (5 cm). round.
Seed: 1 inch in diameter (2.5 cm). round.
The species is monoecious, with male and female flowers in separate panicles but on the same tree. They are produced on long, branched panicles. The fruit is green at first, ripening bright yellow, oval to globose, 4-5 cm long and 4 cm diameter, with a single large grey-brown seed 2.5 cm diameter; the fruit pulp is edible, but does not have a very good flavour. The nuts, called coquitos ("little coconuts") in Spanish, are also edible after cracking the hard shell, similar to coconut in texture and flavour. Editing by edric.
Jubaea chilensis is possibly the hardiest of the pinnate-leaved palms, tolerating temperatures down to about -12°C, about the same as for Butia capitata, though more tolerant of winter wet than that species. This makes it popular in cooler temperate areas with a winter-wet mediterranean climate, though its very slow growth (particularly when young) and difficult availability in the past mean it is still a rare tree in most areas. Older cultivated trees often produce abundant fruit, so seedlings are becoming more widely available.
Comments and Curiosities
Probably the most massive and undoubtedly the most cold tolerant of all pinnate palms, this species, although unfortunately not common in cultivation, hardly needs any introduction. Native to central Chile, it is well suited to temperate and subtropical climates. It is highly drought tolerant but will also do well in cold and humid conditions. It does not need hot summers to grow well, and in winter it can take severe frost down to -16°C (3°F) unharmed. For many temperate climates it is the only large pinnate palm that is cold tolerant enough to be successful long term. Many fine centennial examples can be admired; for example, in California, in Australia, along the Mediterranean, in southern Switzerland, along the windy Atlantic coast of France, and even in Britain. It would do well in many other areas, but has been tried only infrequently. Germination and establishment are slow but easily accomplished, and young plants are sought after and of high value, as they are rarely found in the nursery trade. (RPS.com)
The 'Blue' var. of Jubaea differs slightly from the form commonly seen in cultivation in having leaves with a silvery-blue hue and consequently has been much sought after by growers and enthusiasts alike. It grows in the driest and most northerly part of the natural range of the wine palm in Chile and it is also the most threatened by desertification and development. This would be the form that tolerates the hottest and driest conditions in cultivation and also severe freezes like its greener cousin from further south. (RPS.com)
Jose Elias Bonells description Las Palmeras in Seville: Originally from Chile, commonly known as "palm of Chile" or "palm honey". It is a majestic palm pinnate leaves up to 5 m, consisting of bright green leaflets. Petioles lack of thorns. Its trunk, gray-brown color, can reach 25 m in height and a thickness of 1.5-2 m in diameter. Probably the palm Stipe thicker. Form a leafy crown. Their inflorescences are interfoliar, born between the sheaths of the lower leaves, protected by husks. Purple flowers. Edible fruits, about 5 cm in diameter, like miniature coconuts, first green and yellow when ripe. It is a monoecious species. It is not a demanding palm, but grows best in deep, rich soil, well drained organic matter and abundant irrigation. They live in full sun. Withstands temperatures from -20 ° C. It reproduces by seed, although its growth is slow. The noted in this collection because it is considered a palm tree collections and by the existence of copies, undoubtedly the best in Spain, in Villamanrique de la Condesa (next to Seville population) in the mansion of the Duke of Orleans.
- Glossary of Palm Terms
- MODERN BOTANICAL LATIN
- "Just To Be Clear"
Phonetic spelling of Latin names by edric.
Special thanks to Geoff Stein, (Palmbob) for his hundreds of photos.
Special thanks to Palmweb.org, Dr. John Dransfield, Dr. Bill Baker & team, for their volumes of information and photos.
Glossary of Palm Terms; Based on the glossary in Dransfield, J., N.W. Uhl, C.B. Asmussen-Lange, W.J. Baker, M.M. Harley & C.E. Lewis. 2008. Genera Palmarum - Evolution and Classification of the Palms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. All images copyright of the artists and photographers (see images for credits).
Many Special Thanks to Ed Vaile for his long hours of tireless editing and numerous contributions.