Dypsis thiryana

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Dypsis (DIP-sis)
thiryana (teer-ih-AHN-ah)
DtIMG 0438 Dypsis sp aff thiryana type rachilla 8 14.4cm.jpg
Madagascar. Photo by Clayton York, Utopia Palms & Cycads
Scientific Classification
Genus: Dypsis (DIP-sis)
Species:
thiryana (teer-ih-AHN-ah)
Synonyms
None set.
Native Continent
Africa
Africa.gif
Morphology
Habit: Clustering, rarely solitary.
Leaf type: 18-28 blades.
Culture
Survivability index
Common names
Tsinkiara, Sinkarambolavo maroampototra, Taokonampotatra (Betsimisaraka).

Habitat and Distribution

Endemic to Madagascar. Marojejy and Masoala to Anosibe-an-Ala. Lowland rain forest,
Antanombe, Madagascar. Photo by Dr. John Dransfield, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Palmweb.
slight to steep slope or ridgetop; alt. 220-900 m.

Description

Clustering palm in tufts of 2-4 (solitary according to Miller & Lowry 3942, Benoist 862, and in the last specimen confirmed by roots). STEMS 0.1-1 m high (the type states 5 m, which we find hard to believe), 0.4-0.6 cm in diam.; internodes 0.4-4 cm, brown, densely red-scaly; nodal scars 1-2 mm. LEAVES 8-10 in the crown, porrect; sheath 6-11 cm long, about 0.6 cm in diam., open for 1-2 cm, distally with dense red-brown and pale white scales, with rounded shoulders or with small triangular bumps to 2 mm high; petiole 1-18 cm long, 1.5-2 mm in diam., densely scaly or with scattered scales; rachis 14-30 cm long, in mid-leaf 1-1.5 mm in diam., densely scaly or with scattered scales; leaflets 9-14 on each side of the rachis, rich shiny green to dark green, almost regular or (more often) in groups of 2-3, the group interval 1-4 cm, the proximal 2-7 x 0.2-1.2 cm, the median 3-11 x 0.6-1.3 (-2.5) cm, cuneate at the base, with 1 (3) main vein(s), unequally praemorse and dentate at the apex, the distal half prolonged and with a dentate acumen, with some basal scales but glabrescent, rarely with the distal margin scaly, distal 3-10 x 0.8-3.2 cm, connate for 1.2-3.2 cm, with 4 main veins, truncate and dentate for up to 4 cm. INFLORESCENCE interfoliar, erect, branched to 1 order (one unbranched in Perrier 17214); peduncle 12-26 cm long, 1.5-2 mm in diam., ± glabrous; prophyll 10-17 cm long, to 3 mm wide, borne at up to 5 cm above the base of the peduncle, opening only near the apex, pale brown with scattered scales; peduncular bract inserted at 7-15 cm from the base of the peduncle, 6-11 cm long, opening only in the distal 2-3 cm, pale brown with scattered scales; second tubular peduncular bract often (always?) present at 12-20 cm from the base of the peduncle, 0.9-2.5 cm long, shortly tubular with a long acumen; non-tubular bract sometimes present near the rachis, 1.6 mm long; rachis 0-2.5 (-11.5) cm long, glabrous, with (1-) 2-4 (-8) rachillae; rachillae (2.5-) 6-15 cm long, about 1 mm in diam., glabrous, with distant superficial triads and white flowers. STAMINATE FLOWERS with sepals 0.7-1 x 0.8-1 mm, the outer more keeled than the inner, orbicular, ciliolate; petals on a 0.6 mm high receptacle, 1.9-2.2 x 1-1.3 mm, elliptic or ovate, acute, striate; stamens 6, with the antepetalous filaments inserted slightly above the antesepalous ones, filaments connate for 0.15 mm, 0.8-0.9 mm long, thin, anthers dorsifixed and versatile, 1.1-1.2 x 0.4 mm, the locules parallel, slightly apiculate; pistillode about 0.5 x 0.2 mm. PISTILLATE FLOWERS with sepals imbricate, 1-1.3 x 1.3-1.5 mm, orbicular, ciliolate; petals proximally ovate and imbricate, distally triangular, fleshy and valvate, 2.1-3.3 x 1.2-2.6 mm, striate; staminodes 6, 0.2-0.3 mm; ovary 1-2 x 0.8-1.5 mm, ovoid or ellipsoid with pointed apex. FRUIT bright red, ellipsoid, 9-11 x 3-5 mm. SEED about 9 x 2-3 mm, with homogeneous endosperm. (J. Dransfield and H. Beentje. 1995)/Palmweb. Editing by edric.

The Tsinkiara on the type has been taken for a locality, but is actually a Betsimisaraka name for any small palm. Baker briefly mentions the Meller specimen in a note under N. rhodotricha in J. Linn. Soc. 22: 526 (1887) as distinct, but refrains from naming it. (J. Dransfield and H. Beentje. 1995)/Palmweb.

Culture

Cold Hardiness Zone: 10a

Comments and Curiosities

This is not only one of the most attractive small palms from Madagascar, but also one of the most easily identified. The small wedge-shaped praemorse leaflets are found only in this species and in D. trapezoidea. In the field it can easily be overlooked as the leaflets give the leaves a rather un-palm-like appearance, one more reminiscent of a fern. This would clearly be a wonderful palm to grow as a potted plant; sadly, ripe fruit seem very rarely to be produced in quantity. The name refers to the collector of the type; we have been unable to find any details about him. (J. Dransfield and H. Beentje. 1995)/Palmweb.

"From the photos it seems like only the younger plants seem to be regularly pinnate and as they mature they start to group there leaflets with small intervals/spacing between these groups of leaflets, in some locality’s there are many of these palms growing in large colony’s." (Clayton York, Utopia Palms & Cycads)

Conservation: Rare. Spread over a fairly large area, though never common; usually a few individuals per population. (J. Dransfield and H. Beentje. 1995)/Palmweb.

Uses: Meller says the plant is used for thatching; his specimen is all of 60 cm tall, roots included, and we would doubt his statement. (J. Dransfield and H. Beentje. 1995)/Palmweb.


External Links

References

Phonetic spelling of Latin names by edric.

Special thanks to Geoff Stein, (Palmbob) for his hundreds of photos.

Special thanks to Palmweb.org, Dr. John Dransfield, Dr. Bill Baker & team, for their volumes of information and photos.

Glossary of Palm Terms; Based on the glossary in Dransfield, J., N.W. Uhl, C.B. Asmussen-Lange, W.J. Baker, M.M. Harley & C.E. Lewis. 2008. Genera Palmarum - Evolution and Classification of the Palms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. All images copyright of the artists and photographers (see images for credits).

Dransfield, J. & Beentje, H. 1995. The Palms of Madagascar. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and The International Palm Society.


Many Special Thanks to Ed Vaile for his long hours of tireless editing and numerous contributions.

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