Dypsis heteromorpha

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Dypsis (DIP-sis)
heteromorpha
(heht-eh-roh-MOHRF-ah)
Ceec 1z.jpg
Scientific Classification
Genus: Dypsis (DIP-sis)
Species:
heteromorpha
(heht-eh-roh-MOHRF-ah)
Synonyms
None set.
Native Continent
Africa
Africa.gif
Morphology
Habit: Clustering & solitary.
Leaf type: Pinnate
Culture
Survivability index
Common names
Highland Sugar Cane Palm.

Habitat and Distribution

Endemic to Northern Madagascar: Tsaratanana, Marojejy and Anjanaharibe.
Garden of Aaron Bagley. Encinitas CA. Photo by Aaron Bagley
Moist montane forest; alt. 1300-2200 m.

Description

A moderately sized clustering palm, with a green ringed trunk, and reddish brown fuzzy crown shaft. It's leaves are V shaped and tristichous. A beautiful palm.

Clustering palm in tufts of 3-6, but sometimes solitary. STEMS 3-12 m high, 8-12 cm in diam.; internodes green, nodal scars obvious. LEAVES about 10 in the crown, tristichous (fide Humbert & Saboureau 31725); sheath 27-50 cm long, to 7 cm wide when flattened, with sloping shoulders, adaxially red-brown, abaxially very waxy, in the distal part with dense reddish laciniate scales; petiole absent or up to 35 cm long, 1-1.8 cm in diam., densely pubescent or with scattered scales; rachis about 1.5 m long, in mid- leaf 0.9-1.3 cm wide, slightly keeled, pubescent on both surfaces; leaflets (number unknown) regular, the proximal 20-62 x 0.2-2.5 cm, median 41-67 x 1-3.5 cm (interval 1.5-3.5 cm), distal 7-35 x 0.6-2.5 cm, main veins 1-5, and with thickened margins, abaxially with scattered reddish glands on the minor veins and continuous or scattered laciniate ramenta 3-20 mm long on the midrib, apex bifid, unequally attenuate, young shoots with entire, deeply bilobed leaves 26-50 cm long with a costa 2-4 cm and lobes 24-46 cm long, or leaves with 2-4 leaflets (not seen), on a 64-75 cm long petiole. INFLORESCENCE infrafoliar, branched to 2 orders, pendulous; peduncle 20-40 (+) cm long, proximally 2-3.5 x 0.8-1.3 cm, distally 1-2 x 0.7-1.2 cm, glabrous; prophyll 38-52 x 3-8.5 cm, borne at 9-20 cm above the base of the peduncle, open for a third or over its whole length, erect, with scattered scales; peduncular bract inserted at 17-29 cm from the base of the peduncle, 27-55 (+) cm long, open over its whole length, beaked for 0.5-4 cm, with scattered scales; non-tubular peduncular bracts one or two, 2-5 cm long; rachis 10-35 cm long, glabrous, with 8-10 branched and 7-9 unbranched first order branches, first order branches with a rachis 1.5-13 cm long and 1.1-1.7 x 0.5-0.8 cm in diam. proximally with 3-9 rachillae; rachis bracts conspicuous, to 2.5 cm, pale brown; rachillae 5-23 cm long, 2-4 mm in diam., with dense triads (more distant in fruit), superficial or slightly sunk, with triangular acute rachilla bracts and very pronounced bracteoles. STAMINATE FLOWERS with sepals 2.7-3.2 x 3.5-4.4 mm; petals 3.5-3.8 x 2.5-3 mm; stamens 6, slightly 2-seriate (offset 0.2 mm), filaments in ripe buds 1.8-2.1 mm, cylindrical, anthers 2.2-2.4 x 0.9-1.2 mm; pistillode about 2.4 mm high, 1.2 mm in diam. PISTILLATE FLOWERS with sepals 3-4 x 3.3-5mm; petals (at young bud stage) 3.6-3.8 x c. 3.5 mm, very concave (4-5.5 x 5-7.2 mm in young fruit); staminodes not seen; gynoecium when young about 3 mm high, 1.8 mm in diam. FRUIT ellipsoid, 17- 23 x 14-22 mm, rounded at the apex; endocarp fibrous, the fibres anastomosing. SEED ellipsoid, 16-22 x 13-21 mm, obtuse at the base with a sub-aequatorial depression, rounded at apex, with slight surface grooving; endosperm ruminate, the ruminations distant and 1-7 mm deep. EOPHYLL bifid. (J. Dransfield and H. Beentje. 1995)/Palmweb. Editing by edric.

Related to D. baronii and D. onilahensis, and possibly a high-altitude variant of the former; distinct by deep-ruminate endosperm. (J. Dransfield and H. Beentje. 1995)/Palmweb.

Culture

A moderate to fast grower that can take full sun, and thrives in Southern California. Cold Hardiness Zone: 10a

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Comments and Curiosities

This palm has not been collected since 1959, and the material available to us was fairly fragmentary. A high altitude species, with the name indicating the variation in the leaf division: from regularly pinnate with many leaflets, to entire-leaved on young shoots. (J. Dransfield and H. Beentje. 1995)/Palmweb.

Conservation: Uncertain, but probably rare; the distribution area is not well known botanically. (J. Dransfield and H. Beentje. 1995)/Palmweb.


External Links

References

Phonetic spelling of Latin names by edric.

Special thanks to Geoff Stein, (Palmbob) for his hundreds of photos.

Special thanks to Palmweb.org, Dr. John Dransfield, Dr. Bill Baker & team, for their volumes of information and photos.

Glossary of Palm Terms; Based on the glossary in Dransfield, J., N.W. Uhl, C.B. Asmussen-Lange, W.J. Baker, M.M. Harley & C.E. Lewis. 2008. Genera Palmarum - Evolution and Classification of the Palms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. All images copyright of the artists and photographers (see images for credits).

Dransfield, J. & Beentje, H. 1995. The Palms of Madagascar. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and The International Palm Society.


Many Special Thanks to Ed Vaile for his long hours of tireless editing and numerous contributions.

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