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Dichotomous key for identification of species of the genus Butia occurring in the state of Rio Grande do South (including Butia paraguayensis naturally occurring doubtful).

1. Female flowers with up to 9 mm long, cored fruit or slightly rounded oval, Bract stalk covered with dense tomentum lanuginous brown coloration ............ Butia eriospatha.

2. Bract stalk smooth, glauca, without tomentum lanuginous, Plant with stems up to 2 feet tall and 15-43 cm in diameter; bract of the inflorescence stalk widest above the middle portion and ending abruptly in a short beak; fruits more long than wide, narrow-oblong............ Butia catarinensis.

3. Plant with stems up to 9 feet tall and 32-58 cm in diameter; bract of the inflorescence stalk wider near the middle portion of the expanded portion and gradually tapering towards the apex; fruits often wider than long ............. Butia odorata.

4. Female flowers with more than 10 mm in length; cored elongated rounded never 2. Plants with capacity issue tillers (stems caespitose)............. Butia lallemantii.

5.Plant capacity without perfilhar (single stem), Acaulescentes adult plants or stems of up to 3 meters; expanded portion of the bract peduncle 40-60 cm long, rachis inflorescence with 13-30 cm,............ Butia paraguayensis.

6. Adult plants with 3-9 (-15) m tall; expanded portion of the peduncular bract 55-85 cm between long, rachis inflorescence 47-72 cm long with Leaves with 43-61 pinnae on each side of the rachis, pinnae of the middle part of the rachis with 40-65 x 2.3 - 2.8 cm; ripe fruit with 3.6 to 5.6 x 3.0 to 4.1 cm, weighing between 23.61 to 43.05 grams; endocarp new fruits 2.8-3.5 x 1.6-2.3 cm and weighing between 3.61 to 10.11 grams (pyrene) with 3 corners Longitudinal visible, giving an almost pyramidal side where the pores are. It is the Butia with largest fruit and endocarp of the genre..............Butia witeckii

7. Leaves with (57 -) 63-78 pinnae on each side of the rachis, pinnae of the middle part of the rachis with (58 -) 65-77 x 2.0-2.4 cm; ripe fruit with 3.0 to 4.1 x 1.5 to 2.8 cm, weighing between 8.91 - 15.39 grams; cored fruit with new 1.8-3.0 x 1.0-1.4 inches and weighing between 1.42 to 2.96 grams (pyrene) without longitudinal edges and cone shaped on the side where the pores are, ..................Butia yatay. (K. Soares & S. Longhi) (From the portuguese) Editing by edric.

Butia sp. Machado-Minas Gerais-Brasil. Photo by Mauricio Moreira Caixeta.