Calamus aruensis

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Calamus (KAL-ah-muhs)
aruensis (ahr-oo-EN-sis)
P070209 BH16474 3z.jpg
Photo by Dr. J.L. Dowe.
Scientific Classification
Genus: Calamus (KAL-ah-muhs)
Species:
aruensis (ahr-oo-EN-sis)
Synonyms
Calamus latisectus, C. hollrungii
Native Continent
Oceania
Oceania.gif
Morphology
Habit: Solitary or rarely clustering.
Leaf type: Pinnate
Culture
Survivability index
Common names
NEW GUINEA: akalane (Namasalang), apo gui (Wamesa), bu (Madang), busep (Jal), dou (Waigeo), kanda (Pidgin), kaunor (Waigeo), kerowa (Karimui), kou (Senderawoi), kuminang (Kote), meya senga (Nuni), minge (Bembi), mumuni (Orokaiva), proway (Berap), sate (Rawa), sauwe (Mata), sehp (Usino), sough (Taka), tek niali (Mianmin), to mur (Ayawasi), to puot (Ayawasi), tub (Yei), wap (Wampar), wampwang (Kaigorin), war (Fas), wil dow (Batanta, Salawati), yapl (Bewani). SOLOMON ISLANDS: haikeletau (Kwaraae), kalitau (Kwaraae), karakara, obai, pata, potonai, tikulu (Bougainville).

Habitat and Distribution

Calamus aruensis is found in the Bismarck Archipelago, New Guinea, Queensland, and the Solomon Is.
Photo by Dr. J.L. Dowe.
Widespread in New Guinea, from the Raja Ampat Islands, to the Bismarck Archipelago. Also recorded from Aru Islands, the Solomon Islands, and from the tip of the Cape York Peninsula, Australia. Various types of primary, and secondary forest vegetations, from sea level to 1200 m., most frequently recorded in lowland forest below 500 m. (W.J. Baker, R.P Bayton, J. Dransfield and R.A Maturbongs. 2003)/Palmweb.

Description

Robust, solitary or rarely clustering rattan palm, climbing to 50 m. Stem with sheaths 20 – 50 mm in diam., without sheaths 10 – 30 mm in diam.; internodes 16 – 39 cm, longer in juveniles. Leaf cirrate, to 5 m long including cirrus and petiole; sheath greyish green to dark green, with sparse to abundant, thin, caducous indumentum of matted grey to brown fibrous scales, with scattered purple-brown scales, spines absent to numerous, 4 – 26 × 1 – 7 mm, dark green to black, planar, triangular, stiff, in some forms each spine divided near the apex into several (most commonly 3) points, spine bases slightly swollen adaxially, most spines of uniform large size, interspersed with few smaller spines, solitary or in irregular partial whorls of up to 5, conspicuous spine impressions on sheath, sheath mouth often unarmed, but sometimes densely armed with numerous small spines; knee 44 – 125 mm long, 21 – 37 mm wide, elongate, rarely armed, colour and indumentum as on sheath; ocrea 3 – 9 mm, forming a low, woody, brown, rarely armed, persistent collar, base of ocrea extending along petiole to an acute angle; flagellum absent; petiole 7 – 90 mm, 11 – 27 mm wide and 6 – 15 mm thick at base, channelled or flat adaxially, rounded abaxially, indumentum as on sheath, with few to many short triangular spines; rachis 1.5 – 3 m, with few to many spines as petiole, with irregularly-arranged grapnel spines abaxially; leaflets 13 – 23 each side of rachis, regular or subregular, broadly lanceolate, cucullate, longest leaflets near middle of leaf, 26 – 66 × 6 – 12.5 cm, apical leaflets 10 – 22 × 0.3 – 0.4 cm, distal leaflets widely spaced, basal leaflets small and often reflexing, leaflet surfaces unarmed or with few bristles 1 – 4 mm on adaxial surface of mid-rib and rarely on other major veins, leaflet margins unarmed or with bristles 1 – 6 mm absent at base and increasing in density towards leaflet apex, transverse veinlets inconspicuous; cirrus 1 – 2.5 m, cirrus grapnel spines arranged irregularly. Staminate inflorescence up to 2.7 m long including 15 – 37 cm sterile tip, branched to 3 orders, inflorescence sometimes emerging from sheath mouth, otherwise inserted near to sheath apex; prophyll about 30 × 2.2 cm, strictly tubular, with 2 conspicuous keels, prophyll mouth entire, with narrow, acute, triangular limb to one side, sometimes subtending primary branch, indumentum as on sheath, unarmed or with very few, short spines; peduncular bracts absent, rachis bracts 10 – 33 × 0.5 – 1.9 cm, similar to prophyll; primary branches 6 – 9, to 55 cm long, 10 – 30 cm apart, strongly recurving, with up to about 550 rachillae, bracts on primary and secondary branches funnel-shaped; rachillae 5 – 33 × 0.6 – 1.2 mm, sublinear, glabrous; rachilla bracts 0.5 – 0.6 × 0.6 – 0.9 mm, distichous, glabrous; floral bracteole 0.6 – 0.7 × 0.8 – 1 mm. Staminate flowers 3 – 3.2 × 1.5 mm in bud near anthesis; calyx 1.5 mm in diam., tubular in basal 0.8 – 1 mm, with 3 lobes 0.5 × 0.8 – 1 mm, glabrous; corolla 2.5 – 3 × 1.5 mm in bud, tubular in basal 0.7 – 1 mm, glabrous; stamens 6, filaments 1.2 – 1.8 × 0.2 – 0.3 mm, anthers 1.3 – 1.5 × 0.5 – 0.7 mm; pistillode about 0.2 mm, minutely trifid. Pistillate inflorescence similar to staminate inflorescence, but branched to 2 orders, up to 3 m long including 18 – 47 cm peduncle and 14 – 120 cm sterile tip, usually inserted near to sheath apex, but sometimes emerging from sheath mouth; prophyll 18 – 46 × 1.3 – 2.5 cm, similar to staminate prophyll; peduncular bracts absent, rachis bracts 9 – 32 × 0.4 – 2 cm, similar to prophyll; primary branches 6 – 10, to 55 cm long, 21 – 40 cm apart, strongly recurving, with up to 43 rachillae, distal primary branches often consisting of a single rachilla, bracts on primary branch funnel-shaped; rachillae 2.3 – 14 × 0.1 – 0.2 cm, sublinear or irregular; rachilla bracts 0.5 – 1 × 1.6 – 2.5 mm, subdistichous, sometimes with indumentum as on sheath; proximal floral bracteole obscured by distal bracteole, distal floral bracteole 0.8 – 2 × 1.2 – 2 mm, glabrous, scar from sterile staminate flower about 0.2 mm in diam. Pistillate flowers about 2.7 × 2.2 mm at anthesis; calyx about 2.2 mm in diam., tubular in basal about 1.9 mm, with 3 lobes to about 0.6 × 1.3 mm, glabrous; corolla about 2.3 × 1.6 mm, tubular in basal about 1.1 mm, with 3 lobes to about 1.2 × 1.3 mm, glabrous; staminodes 6, about 1.2 mm long, staminodal ring about 0.8 mm high; ovary about 1.3 × 1.3 mm, globose, style about 0.5 mm long, stigmas about 0.6 mm long. Sterile staminate flowers similar to staminate flower, but with empty anthers. Fruit globose, 10.5 – 14 × 10 – 11.5 mm including beak 0.5 – 1 mm, with 12 – 18 longitudinal rows of cream-white, shallowly channelled scales with entire, but uneven margins, sarcotesta about 0.5 mm thick. Seed (sarcotesta removed) 7.5 – 9.5 × 7 – 9 × 6 – 7 mm, globose, with a deep, narrow pit on one side, the surface covered with numerous deep pits and irregular channels; endosperm homogeneous; embryo basal. (W.J. Baker, R.P Bayton, J. Dransfield and R.A Maturbongs. 2003)/Palmweb. Editing by edric.

Culture

Comments and Curiosities

Uses: General cordage for pulling heavy objects and building bridges, split cane for tying house timbers, cane for furniture, cirrus for catching eels, leaves as wrapping for sago and in walls of houses, young shoot edible. (W.J. Baker, R.P Bayton, J. Dransfield and R.A Maturbongs. 2003)/Palmweb.


External Links

References

Phonetic spelling of Latin names by edric.

Special thanks to Geoff Stein, (Palmbob) for his hundreds of photos.

Special thanks to Palmweb.org, Dr. John Dransfield, Dr. Bill Baker & team, for their volumes of information and photos.

Glossary of Palm Terms; Based on the glossary in Dransfield, J., N.W. Uhl, C.B. Asmussen-Lange, W.J. Baker, M.M. Harley & C.E. Lewis. 2008. Genera Palmarum - Evolution and Classification of the Palms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. All images copyright of the artists and photographers (see images for credits).

Baker, W.J. , Bayton, R.P , Dransfield, J. & Maturbongs, R.A. 2003. A revision of the Calamus aruensis (Arecaceae) complex in New Guinea and the Pacific. Kew Bulletin 58: 351-370.


Many Special Thanks to Ed Vaile for his long hours of tireless editing and numerous contributions.

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