| Burretiokentia |
Nodéla Reserve, New Caledonia.
Habitat and DistributionBurretiokentia dumasii is found in the rainforests, of New Caledonia. Occurs in rainforest on ultramafic rocks.
New Caledonia. Burretiokentia dumasii is known only from collections in Nodela Valley on the Me Maoya massif north of Bourail in west-central New Caledonia, at 600 m elevation. According to observations and photographs by J-P. Tivollier, however, it may also grow above Emma Mine on the ridge leading to Me Maoya summit at 1100 m elevation, and if so, it probably occurs elsewhere on the massif. A collection at Foret de Saille, south of Thio. in southeast New Caledonia may represent the same species. In that case, B. dumasii may be relativeIy widespread. Burretiokentia dumasii occurs in rain forest on ultramafic rocks. It is found mostly on rocky, well-drained sites on oxysols derived from peridotites. (J-C. Pintaud and D. Hodel. 1998)/Palmweb.
Solitary, under story palm, 8-15m. tall. Flower: Emerges from beneath crownshaft. Leaf detail: Pinnately compound, large fronds, close, diametrically opposed pinnae. Very rare in cultivation, trunk filled with prominent leaf scars, and close together, suddenly flared at the base, revealing a ring of rather short stilt roots. an average of ten leaves or so at maturity, spread out to make a dark green fresh appearance, from 1.5 to 2.5 m. long petiole covered with a short tomentum grayish brown flush, leaf sheath 30-50 cm. long, flared early on, covered with a tomentum ras, first whitish then grayish. Phenology (flower): Inflorescences, 1-2, short and sturdy, erect at first then horizontal and somewhat expanded, covered with a thick whitish tomentum. (From the French) Editing by edric.
|Detailed Scientific Description|
Solitary sub-canopy palm. Trunk 8-12 m tall, 10-13 cm in diam. breast high, prominently ringed. Leaves 10-12 per crown, borne in five ranks, spreading, expanding red; sheath 60-80 cm long, cylindric, distally costate along petiole axis, proximally rounded, abaxially pale green, covered with thick, white tomentum, adaxially bright pink with sparse to rather dense, white indument, splitting in distal ¾ opposite petiole and terminating on petiole in two fibrous, chartaceous, prominent wings; petiole 15-35 cm long, winged at least on proximal half or up to rachis base, adaxially channelled, glabrous, abaxially angled, initially white or grey-tomentose, aging puncticulate; rachis 2-2.50 m long; pinnae -25 on each side of rachis, borne in one plane, median ones 80-100 x 5-8 cm, distal ones 30-35 x 3 cm, proximal 2-3 pairs 25-30 x 0.8-1.5 cm, all straight, forward-pointing, acute to acuminate, 1-ribbed, glossy green and glabrous on both surfaces, paler abarially, midrib prominent adaxially, bearing sparse, brown scales, midrib very prominent abaxially, bearing brown-centered, whitemargined scales, 2-8 secondary nerves scarcely prominent, scales more abundant proximally. Inflorescences 1-4, infrafoliar, stiffly spreading, protandrous, 40-60 cm long, entirely and persistently greyish-tomentose, branched to 3 orders; peduncle 5-7 cm long, 3-5.5 cm wide and 2-3 cm thick distally; prophyll 25-40 x 10-15 cm, inserted 2-3 cm above peduncular base, bicarinate, bifid, chartaceous, incompletely encircling peduncle at insertion abaxially, splitting to 1/4-2/3 its length on opposite side; first peduncular bract 40-60 x 10-15 cm, oval-elongate, rostrate to acuminate, thin, completely encircling peduncle at insertion, inserted 1-2 cm above prophyll and exceeding it by 1/3-1/2, prophyll and first peduncular bract white-tomentose abaxially, second peduncular bract prominent, 8-13 x 3-5 cm, acute, bifid or truncate, densely greyish tomentose abaxially, glabrous adaxially, third peduncular bract to 5 x 3 cm, shape and indument same as second one; rachis 18-20 cm long, main branches 6-9, 5-8 cm long, 1.5-2 cm wide, second order branches 1-3 cm long, all branches angled; bracts subtending main branches triangular, 1-5 cm long, rachillae 18-35, divaricate, stout, 20-45 cm long, 1.3 cm in diam.; rachis, branches, and rachillae densely greyish-tomentose. Flowers in spirally arranged triads except staminate only distally; triad clefts 8 mm wide, 4 mm high, 3 mm deep; bract subtending triad broadly rounded, densely fringed; outermost bracteole low, 4 x 2 mm, inner two bracteoles surrounding pistillate flower sepal-like, subequal, 3-4 x 3-3.5 mm; staminate flowers in bud 6 x 5 mm, at anthesis 11 x 11 mm, calyx 4 x 6 mm, sepals imbricate, prominently keeled, rounded apically, fringed; petals broadly ovate, 5 x 4 mm, ? longer than sepals, connate basally; stamens 6, filaments 4.5 mm long, connate basally in a short ring, inflexed apically, anthers 2.75 mm long, dorsifixed, locules with a central, sterile part; pistillode short, 2 mm high, conic; pistillate flowers 6.5 x 4.5 mm, ovoidcylindric; sepals 4 x 4 mm, rounded, sparsely fringed, imbricate; petals 5 x 5 mm, thin, broadly imbricate except valvate tips, fringed; staminodes three, within one petal, 1 mm long, triangular; pistil 6.5 x 3.5 mm, stigma trifid, lobes small, erect, ovule pendulous. Fruits 13 x 11 mm, obovoid-globose, pale green when immature, purplish at maturity, mesocarp grainy, tanniniferous with few included fibers, endocarp thin, crustaceous, sculptured and costate, operculate, with a band of fibers adherent to costa; seeds 8 x 8 mm, obpyramidal, depressed apically, sculptured, costate, endosperm homogeneous, embryo basal. Germination adjacentligular, eophyll deeply bifid; seedlings becoming strongly trigonous at base with age, leaf sheath sharply angled, late bifid leaves tristichous, petiole and rachis densely covered with numerous, prominent blackish scales, lamina obtriangular, to 40 cm long, lobes to 5 cm wide, connate in proximal 2/5 to half; trunkless juveniles with keeled leaf sheaths, petioles angled abaxially, deeply channelled adaxially and prominently winged, litter trapping; leaf sheath marcescent on trunked juveniles, abscissing and forming a crownshaft only in mature trees. (J-C. Pintaud and D. Hodel. 1998)/Palmweb.
Burretiokentia dumasii shares several characteristics with B. koghiensis, including the new leaf expanding red and the tristichous seedling with a triangular base and prominent blackish scales. Burretiokentia dumasii differs from B. koghiensis in the less numerous, spreading leaves with far fewer pinnae, the stiffly spreading, densely tomentose inflorescences with stout rachillae, the obovoid-globose fruits, and the peculiar, pyramidal seeds. (J-C. Pintaud and D. Hodel. 1998)/Palmweb.
Comments and Curiosities
PHENOLOGY: Burretiokentio dumasii flowers in September and fruits in January.
CONSERVATION STATUS (lUCN, 1994): Low risk, conservation-dependent (LRcd). The type and only documented locality in Nodela Valley has been recently declared a Special Reserve of Flora and Fauna. The Forestry Service of Bourail manages and controls access to the reserve. Thus, although very rare, B. dumasii is adequately protected. This palm is abundant where it grows and regeneration is good. (J-C. Pintaud and D. Hodel. 1998)/Palmweb.
TAXONOMIC HISTORY: J.-M. Veillon of ORSTOM and Serge Blancher of the Forest Service found Burretiokentia dumasii in 1992 when the Forestry Service began to manage the forests of Nodela. A private company had partially logged Nodela Valley prior to 1992. (J-C. Pintaud and D. Hodel. 1998)/Palmweb.
ETYMOLOGY: The name honors Marc Dumas, an ardent palm enthusiast who has greatly contributed to the study of New Caledonian palms in recent years and who helped in raising a new and strong interest in palms in New Caledonia with the founding of Association Chambeyronia, of which he is currently president. (J-C. Pintaud and D. Hodel. 1998)/Palmweb.
- Glossary of Palm Terms
- MODERN BOTANICAL LATIN
- "Just To Be Clear"
- New Caledonia photos in habitat.
Phonetic spelling of Latin names by edric.
Special thanks to Geoff Stein, (Palmbob) for his hundreds of photos.
Special thanks to Palmweb.org, Dr. John Dransfield, Dr. Bill Baker & team, for their volumes of information and photos.
Glossary of Palm Terms; Based on the glossary in Dransfield, J., N.W. Uhl, C.B. Asmussen-Lange, W.J. Baker, M.M. Harley & C.E. Lewis. 2008. Genera Palmarum - Evolution and Classification of the Palms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. All images copyright of the artists and photographers (see images for credits).
Pintaud, J-C. & Hodel, D. 1998. Three new species of Burretiokentia.
Many Special Thanks to Ed Vaile for his long hours of tireless editing and numerous contributions.