Aiphanes hirsuta

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Aiphanes (eh-FAHN-ehz)
hirsuta (heer-SOO-tah)
Cqs1234324711j.jpg
Southern Costa Rica. Garden of Puerto Golfito. Photo by Jose Maria Cornelis.
Scientific Classification
Genus: Aiphanes (eh-FAHN-ehz)
Species:
hirsuta (heer-SOO-tah)
Synonyms
None set.
Native Continent
America
America.gif
Morphology
Habit: Clustering, & caespitose.
Leaf type: Pinnate
Culture
Survivability index
Common names
None.

Habitat and Distribution

Costa Rica. Panama; along the western slopes of Cordillera Occidental in Colombia,
Southern Costa Rica. Garden of Puerto Golfito. Photo by Jose Maria Cornelis.
to north-western Ecuador, reaching into the northern and eastern slopes of Cordillera Central in the department of Antioquia in northwestern Colombia. An understory element in premontane or montane rain forest, between 600 and 2200 m, but it has also been recorded from lowland areas in northwestern Colombia at 100 m. (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)/Palmweb.

Description

Caespitose, with 1-8 (-20) stems, each (2-) 3-10 m tall, 2.5- 10 cm in diam., armed with black spines, to 12 (-25) cm long, distal half of stem rarely covered with persistent old leaf sheaths. Leaves 4-8, erect and arching; sheath 20-90 cm long, covered with brown spines, to 12 cm long; petiole 9-100 cm long, green, unarmed to densely armed with spinules and spines simiIar to those on sheath; rachis 86-194 cm long. with a grey to brown, scaly, caducous indument, unarmed to densely covered with black spinules, sometimes with many brown to black spines, to 4 cm long; pinnae 9-40 per side, inserted in dense to lax groups of (1-) 2-9 separated by 5-21 cm, in one plane or more often in different planes, more or less rigid, weakly to strongly plicate, linear to broadly cuneate. 1-14 times as long as wide, truncate to lobulate praemorse, or occasionally slightly incised praemorse at apex, with a 1-6 cm long finger-like projection on the distal margin, adaxial side glabrous, abaxial side rough, or both sides sparsely to densely covered with up to 5 mm long, yellow spinules; basal pinnae 17.5-45 x 1- 13 cm; middle pinnae 11-65 x 5-22 cm; apical pinnae 22-45 x 7-32 cm. Inflorescence erect or more often curving, branched to 1 order; prophyll 25-52 cm long. 1.5-4.5 cm wide; peduncular bract 70-133 cm long. 2.5-12 cm wide, with a brown, scaly, caducous indument, often covered with brown to black spinules, sometimes armed with brown to violet spines, to 2 cm long; peduncle (21-)43- 170 cm long, 2-9 mm in diam. at junction with rachis, minutely spinulose or sparsely to very densely armed with numerous short spinules and brown spines, to 3(-5) cm long; rachis 17-100 cm long, unarmed or armed like peduncle, spines fewer and shorter distally; rachillae 9-100, white to light brown at anthesis, densely covered with light brown, purple or black spinules, minute or to 2.5 mm long; basal rachillae 23-90 cm long, sometimes with an up to 18 cm long flowerless part, with triads for ½-? of the remaining length, in this part 2-5 mm in diam. at anthesis, often thicker in fruit, distally about 1-2 mm in diam., with staminate dyads; apical rachillae 11-40 cm long, staminate or in inflorescences with <30 rachillae often with a few triads at base; fruiting rachillae occasionally very thick and fastigiate; triads inserted in shallow depressions in the rachillae, subtended by a short rim-like bract covering the pistillate flower for about ? of its length; dyads slightly sunken, subtended by an up to 1 mm long narrow bract. Staminate flowers 1.5-3.4 mm long, purple to white, sometimes yellow in the center, with white to yellow anthers; sepals narrowly triangular, imbricate, keeled, 1- 3 mm long; petals almost free or basally connate, valvate, ovate to oblong, 2-3 mm long; filaments 0.7-1 mm long; anthers nearly square to linear, 0.5-1.2 x 0.4- 0.7 mm; pistillode 0.5-1 mm high, trifid. Pistillate flowers brown to violet, 3-7 mm long; sepals rounded to broadly ovate, almost enclosing the petals before anthesis, 4-6 mm long, often with scattered minute spinules adaxially; petals connate for ?-½ of their length, valvate distally, 3-8 mm long, basally with minute, pale, or yellowish spinules abaxially, lobes triangular, rounded-acute to acuminate, spreading to recurved at anthesis; staminodial cup 2-5 mm high, acutely lobed to nearly truncate, basal half adnate to corolla tube, distal part appressed to the pistil; pistil 3-7 mm high , glabrous, or more often spinulose especially at base. Fruits dark red to purple, or occasionally white, globose, 7-20 mm in diam., sometimes shortly rostrate, glabrous or with many minute, black spinules; endocarp 6-18 mm in diam., small endocarps finely pitted, especially distally, larger ones deeply pitted, sometimes longitudinally grooved and 3-lobed in x.s., more rarely without pits; seed globose to very irregular. (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)/Palmweb.

One of the most complex and variable species in the genus. It includes a morphologically continuous series of forms through its distributional range, with a general tendency to increase in size of all structures toward the south. It is here divided into four subspecies. (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)/Palmweb.

Culture

Cold Hardiness Zone: 10a firm.

Comments and Curiosities


External Links

References

Phonetic spelling of Latin names by edric.

Special thanks to Geoff Stein, (Palmbob) for his hundreds of photos.

Special thanks to Palmweb.org, Dr. John Dransfield, Dr. Bill Baker & team, for their volumes of information and photos.

Glossary of Palm Terms; Based on the glossary in Dransfield, J., N.W. Uhl, C.B. Asmussen-Lange, W.J. Baker, M.M. Harley & C.E. Lewis. 2008. Genera Palmarum - Evolution and Classification of the Palms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. All images copyright of the artists and photographers (see images for credits).

Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95


Many Special Thanks to Ed Vaile for his long hours of tireless editing and numerous contributions.

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